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Monday, 8 June 2015

PAD Architecture – Data Layer

Data Management is a “re-emerging” field in ICT most especially in the Oil and Gas industry with the latest trend known as “BIG DATA”. Most major companies are incorporating Data Science as part of their core business.

Relational Data Management was used during the course of developing Cerebro Technologies’ current website. One of the techniques associated with Relational Data Management is the normalization of database tables. Normalization is implemented in the logical design process as seen in figure 1. The first step in the design process is an abstraction of the real life problem. Once that is achieved, the entities and the way and manner the entities relate are mapped out.
Figure 1: Design process

A close look at Figure 2 shows the relationship between three entities – Driver, Trip and Expenses. The Driver makes a Trip and incurs expenses. Each driver makes one or more trip(s) and each trip incurs one or more expense(s). As soon as the entity relationships have been established, the attributes associated with each entity are defined.
Figure 2: E-R Diagram 

In the logical Design process, the tables, key attributes are defined, and referential integrity implemented. A look at Figure 3 shows how the table relationship looks like. Referential integrity just like the name suggest helps guarantee the integrity of the data entered into the database management system. Normalization is also implemented to avoid data redundancy and introduction of anomalies during data entry process.
Figure 3: E-R and Table Relationship Diagram

The final design process is the Physical Design Process where the file structure and the type of indexes used to search and extract data from the database are defined. It is important to get this right for effective time management.


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